2023 Author: Beatrice Philips | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 03:41
Today, as well as many years ago, wood is one of the highest quality, reliable and demanded building materials. She, especially of certain breeds, even in spite of the fact that there are modern materials, has been and remains a favorite of both the manufacturer and the consumer.
In the process of manufacturing objects and structures, the so-called commercial wood is used. All detailed information about it is available in this article.
What it is?
Commercial timber is the main one in the group of sawn timber.
This is a part of a tree trunk of any kind, which is characterized by a certain size and quality, which further determines it suitable for use in production.
Various structures are made from it, which can be used both in construction and in the national economy.
If we take into account the entire volume of logging, then the net yield of industrial wood is from 73% to 86%
Earlier in the article, we already talked about the fact that this material should have certain characteristics and the highest quality. All characteristics are specified in regulatory documents, namely GOST 32714–2014 “Timber. Terms and definitions”, GOST 531000“Business wood”and GOST 2292–88 *“Round timber. Marking .
These regulations indicate that there are certain categories and classifications
So, commercial timber is classified into the following categories
- By category . There are three of them. The most high-quality material goes to 1 category, but the 3rd is assigned to the one whose characteristics are far from ideal.
- By size category . There are large, medium and small. This parameter is determined by such a characteristic as the diameter of the whip. For large industrial timber, the diameter of the whip (excluding bark) is 26 centimeters. For medium-sized wood - from 14 cm to 24 cm, but for small wood - from 6 m to 13 cm.
There is also a division into varieties. This parameter depends on the type and grade of the source material - wood. More details about what trees are used in production for the manufacture of commercial timber can be read later in the article.
When determining the quality of the material, attention is also paid to the following parameters and characteristics
- Cross-sectional color . Most of the trees in the section have a different color color of the kernels, but there are also those that are characterized by uniform. They are called sapwood. This color is possessed by birch, linden, maple, alder. A simple characteristic such as the color of the core can help determine if the trunk is healthy.
- Kernel state . The core is the strongest and hardest part of the timber.
- The number of sapwood layers . The sapwood is the part of the trunk, which is based on young cells. It is present in young trees that do not yet have sufficient strength and hardness for sawn timber to be used as commercial timber.
Also important is the factor where and in what conditions the plant grew, how old it is and what variety it belongs to.
A parameter such as barrel length is also taken into account. Commercial wood can be of any length, but tall plants are mainly used for processing, from the trunk of which a lot of material can be obtained .
The material procurement process takes place in accordance with GOST. It is quite laborious. It all starts with the fact that it is necessary to determine from all the lumber exactly the one that meets the above requirements in terms of quality and characteristics . The one that is below the third grade in terms of parameters cannot be used for the production of commercial sawn timber.
Commercial timber is obtained from the main part of the tree - the trunk . Timber logs are cut lengthwise using special equipment and form assortments from them. Further, the material is also cleaned on special machines, trimmed, polished and, if necessary, covered with special paints and varnishes.
The process of material processing is largely determined by its further use
How much commercial wood will come out of a cubic meter of forest depends on many factors, mainly, of course, on the type of wood. Today, the following species are used for the manufacture of this type of lumber .
- Oak . It is the most expensive and valuable wood species in the world. Furniture, structures for renovation are made exclusively of oak.
- Beech . An excellent material is obtained from its trunk, which is later used for the production of flooring.
Trees such as pine, birch, maple are used, although quite rarely, for the manufacture of commercial timber. This is due to the peculiarities of the tree itself.
Pine and spruce are known to be resinous trees that, even after being felled, can give off resin for many years. The scope of application of lumber from them is quite narrow.
The leaders in the production of industrial wood today are the United States, which owns 18% of the total world production of sawn timber, Russia - 11%, China - 9%, Brazil - 8% . Of course, only those countries where enough forests grow are procured, processed and supplied to the market.
Nowadays, commercial timber is considered one of the most demanded materials. Almost everyone who, for example, is engaged in renovation work or makes custom-made furniture, prefers it . This is not surprising at all. After all, it is this type of material that is of the highest quality and meets the standards.
Today, large massive furniture and other structures are mainly made from industrial wood. It is also used:
- in construction;
- in the pulp and paper industry;
- for the production of plywood, sleepers, sports equipment such as skis or guns.
The highest quality timber products from certain tree species and varieties are used in shipbuilding and for the installation of communication lines.
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